Early Industrialization

Sat 14 Mar 2015


Industrialization came to the United State after 1790 as North American entrepreneurs increased productivity by reorganizing work and building factories. These innovations in manufacturing boosted output and living standards to an unprecedented extent; the average per capita wealth increased by nearly 1 percent per year – 30 percent over the course of a generation. Goods that had once been luxury items became part of everyday life.

The impressive gain in output stemmed primarily from the way in which workers made goods, since the 1790's, North American entrepreneurs – even without technological improvements – had broadened the scope of the outwork system that mace manufacturing more efficient by distributing materials to a succession of workers who each performed a single step of the production process. For example, during the 1820's and 1830's the shoe industry greatly expanded the scale and extend of me outwork system. Tens of thousands of rural women, paid according to the amount they produced, fabricated the "uppers" of shoes, which were bound to the soles by wage-earning journeymen shoemakers in dozens of Massachusetts towns, whereas previously journeymen would have made the enduring shoe. This system of production made the employer a powerful "shoe boss" and eroded workers' control over the pace and conditions of labor. However, it also dramatically increased the output of shoes while cutting their price.

For tasks that were not suited to the outwork system, entrepreneurs created an even more important new organization, the modem factory, which used power-driven machines and assembly-line techniques to turn out large quantities of well-made goods. As early as 1782 the prolific Delaware inventor Oliver Evans had built a highly automated, laborsaving flour mill driven by water power. His machinery lifted the grain to the top of the mill, cleaned it as it fell into containers known as hoppers, ground the grain into flour, and then conveyed the flour back to the top of the mill to allow it to cool as it descended into barrels. Subsequently, manufacturers made use of new improved stationary steam engines to power their mills. This new technology enabled them to build factories in the nation's largest cities, taking advantage of urban concentrations of inexpensive labor, good transportation networks, and eager customers.

Questions:

1. What is the passage mainly about?
(A)The difficulties of industrialization in North America
(B)The influence of changes in manufacturing on the growth of urban centers
(C) The rapid speed of industrialization in North America
(D) Improved ways of organizing the manufacturing of goods

2. The word "boosted" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) ensured    
(B) raised    
(C) arranged    
(D) discouraged

3. The word "scope" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) value    
(B) popularity    
(C) extent    
(D) diversity

4. The author mentions the shoe industry in the second paragraph to provide an example of how
(A) entrepreneurs increased output by using an extended outwork system
(B) entrepreneurs used technological improvements to increase output
(C) rural workers responded to "shoe bosses"
(D) changes in the outwork system improved the quality of shoes

5. All of the following are mentioned as effects of changes in the shoe industry during the 1820's and 1830's EXCEPT
(A) an increase in the worker's dependence on entrepreneurs
(B) an increase in the wages paid to journeymen shoemakers
(C) a decline in the workers ability to control the speed of production
(D) a decrease in the price of shoes

6. All of the following are true of the outwork system EXCEPT
(A) It involved stages of production.
(B) It was more efficient than the systems used before 1790.
(C) It made many employers less powerful than they had been before.
(D) It did not necessarily involve any technological improvements.

7. The word "prolific" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A) efficient    
(B) productive    
(C) self-employed    
(D) progressive

8. According to the passage, how did later mills differ from the mills differ from the mill built by Oliver Evans?
(A) They were located away from large cities.
(B) They used new technology to produce power.
(C)They did not allow flour to cool before it was placed in Barrels.
(D)They combined technology with the outwork system.

9. The word "it" in line 24 refers to
(A) water power    
(B) machinery    
(C) grain    
(D) mill

10. The passage mentions which of the following as a result of improvements in factory machinery?
(A) It become easier for factory' owners to find workers and customers.
(B) Manufacturers had to employ more highly skilled workers.
(C) The amount of power required for factories operate was reduced.
(D) Factories could operate more than one engine at a time.

11. The word "eager" in line 29 is closest in meaning to
(A) wealthy    
(B) knowledgeable    
(C) regular    
(D) enthusiastic

Answers:

1)D 2)B 3)C 4)A 5)B 6)C 7)B 8)B 9)C 10)A 11)D

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